## Structure and evolution of magnetohydrodynamic solitary waves with Hall and finite Larmor radius effects

Authors: E. Bello-Benítez, G. Sánchez-Arriaga, T. Passot, D. Laveder and E. Siminos. There exist a broad variety of nonlinear-wave phenomena in the solar wind. Different types of stable large-amplitude solitary waves are typically observed in these plasmas. The study of small amplitude waves can be described by well-known equations: Korteweg-de-Vries (KdV), modified KdV, Derivative Nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) and triple-degenerate DNLS. However, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid equations are more suitable for the analysis of large-amplitude structures, which is the approach used in this work [1] —to be precise, MHD equations with Hall effect and Finite Larmor Radius (FLR) corrections to the double adiabatic pressure tensor. Assuming travelling wave solutions, the system of partial differential equations yields a set of 5 ordinary differential equations (ODEs) governing the spatial profile of the velocity and magnetic-field vectors —if double adiabatic equations of state are used for the gyrotropic pressures. The procedure to derive these equations follows Ref. [2], but some discrepancies are shown [1]. The existence of solitary-wave solutions in different parametric regimes is rigorously proved in this system of ODEs using concepts and tools from the theory of dynamical systems. Two key features of the concerning ODEs are: (1) the system is reversible and (2) the existence of an invariant which allows reducing the effective dimension of the system from 5 to 4. These characteristics are guaranteed if equations of state are used for the pressures. Nevertheless, only stable structures have physical interests and are expected to be observed in space. The global stability of the solitary waves is investigated by numerical spectral simulations using two different closures for the pressures: (1) double adiabatic equations and (2) evolution equations including the FLR work terms [3], which guarantee energy conservation and better reproduces the real physics. In case (1), it is found that the solitary waves may have a stable core even if the background is unstable. The background instability seems to disappear when the energy-conserving model (2) is considered. In this case, stable solitary waves are found that survive long time without significant deformation.

References

[1] E. Bello-Benítez, G. Sánchez-Arriaga, T. Passot, D. Laveder and E. Siminos, Phys. Rev. E 99, 023202 (2019).

[2] E. Mjølhus, Nonlin. Proc. Geophys. 16, 251 (2009).

[3] P. L. Sulem and T. Passot, J. Plasma Phys. 81, 325810103 (2015).