Parametric interactions in multimode fibers

Guy Millot
Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, ICB, UMR CNRS 6303, 9 Avenue A. Savary, 21078 Dijon, France

Over the last few years, it has been demonstrated that multimode fibers (MMFs) offer novel opportunities to explore the nonlinear coupling between the temporal and spatial effects. In particular, the process of periodic self-imaging (SI) of light occurring inside graded-index (GRIN) MMFs has been found to play a major role in the nonlinear propagation of optical pulses with normal dispersion. In this talk, we focus on the spectral evolutions of an input narrowband multimode beam induced by the SI effect. First, we show that when a large number of modes is initially excited in a highly multimode fiber, SI leads to an original phenomenon of geometric parametric instability characterized by the generation of an intense frequency comb spanning from the near-ultraviolet to the near infrared. On the other hand, for powerful pulses, all parametric sidebands are characterized by a bell-shape beam similar to that emerging from a single-mode fiber. By limiting the nonlinear interactions to the lowest order fiber modes only, we study the influence of a superimposed seed centered on the first-order parametric Stokes sideband, on the efficiency of the multiple sideband generation processes. We show that the injected seed can stimulate the generation of new spectral sidebands in the visible and near-infrared regions of the spectrum. The second part of the talk is dedicated to intermodal four-wave-mixing and modulational instability that occur in a few-mode GRIN fiber. We show that far-detuned (from 200 up to 450 THz) frequency conversion is obtained via intermodal four-wave-mixing with an important role played by a secondary pump in the subsequent supercontinuum generation. Moreover, we observe a strong power dependence of intermodal modulational instability. Finally, we introduce the concept of spectral control of parametric sidebands in GRIN MMFs by tailoring their linear refractive index profile with a Gaussian dip into the refractive index profile.